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World Libraries follows the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003). Authors may wish to consult Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996) for a convenient digest of the directions presented in the Chicago Manual. If you have any questions concerning reference format, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Citations in the course of the manuscript should appear in the following ways:
- General Format
The last name of the author of a cited work should appear in the paper, followed by the year of publication of the book, paper, report, or document, as in (Jones, 1990).
If there are several references to authors with the same surname, initials should be used to differentiate between the authors, as in (C. Jones, 1990; D. Jones, 1985).
- Two Authors
- For references containing two authors, list the authors in order of their appearance in the original publication, followed by date of publication, as in (Smith and Jones, 1986).
- Three or More Authors
- If a reference contains three or more authors, the citation should appear as (Rogers et al., 1980).
- Publications in Press
- Cite publications in press (i.e. those documents accepted for publication but not yet published) as (Rivers, in press).
- Direct Quotations
- Cite direct quotations as (Merrell, 1994, p. 98).
- Indirect Quotations
- A citation can refer to text written by one author embedded in the text of a book or paper written by another author, such as (Ransmayr in Rothenberg, 1995).
- Multiple Quotations
Multiple citations can appear in whatever order the author deems relevant, such as (Shane and Cushing, 1991; Chalmers, 1990; Kendall and Wells, 1992).